Day 7: Product Management Glossaries

Before proceeding further, lets get acquainted with Product Management Glossary. Even though, the terms are explained by only definition, the complete explanation for each term shall be described later, when we encounter these terms in respective key areas:

Terms Definition
Actual Relative Value The ratio of benefits and costs[expenses] the product factually delivers to customers.
Actual Resultant Value A fixed combination of gains in time, cost, and business the product factually delivers to customers.
Actual Value The measured and validated worth that the customer or similar customers factually obtain from owning and using the product.
Actual Value Formula Actual value = actual resultant value + actual relative value
Advertising Non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media.
Allowances A conditional refund in form of a deduction from the list price in exchange for customer action.  Allowances are often accomplished in two forms:

a.       Trade-in (pricing) – an item of property given in part payment upon purchase;

b.       Rebate (pricing) – customer receives reimbursement for a portion of the purchase price, in exchange for customer information.

Analyst Relations The bi-directional information exchange with financial analysts and industry analysts to inform and favourably influence them.
Asset Assessment An asset condition assessment is a report outlining how an organization can manage capital assets to improve its asset management operations.
Bait Pricing Pricing that aims to attract customers with low prices with intent to sell higher-priced items.
Base Price The initial price of a product before any alteration.
BDM Buyer Business Decision Maker buyer.  The person who has the ultimate decision-making power to purchase a product or not.
Benefits Product features that are desirable to the customer.
Brand An identity, made of symbols and ideas, which portrays a specific offering from a known source.
Brand Awareness A measure of whether a brand is correctly identified by potential customers. Typically expressed as a percentage of a target market. There are many different approaches to measuring this statistic, but it typically means that a customer can respond to a brand after viewing its logo or packaging. Business Case A decision support
Business Case A justification for a proposed project or undertaking on the basis of its expected commercial benefit.
Business Competence The set of professional skills and knowledge that relate directly to performing product management.
Business Development Actions that improve the performance of the enterprise, its access to markets, and its ability to compete by creating strategic relationships with logistical, content, and technological partners.
Business Model Description of the rationale of how an organization creates, delivers and captures value by interacting with suppliers, employees, customers and partners.
Business Model Archetype A basic pattern of doing business. Available archetypes are creator, distributor and broker.
Business Plan A business plan is a written document that describes in detail how a business, usually a new one, is going to achieve its goals. A business plan lays out a written plan from a marketing, financial and operational viewpoint. Sometimes, a business plan is prepared for an established business that is moving in a new direction.
Business Plan Examination of a potential business opportunity on a company level.
Business Products Products intended for resale, for use in producing other products, or for providing services in an organization.  Business products are used for making money.
Business Strategy Decisions that support being a leader, follower, or innovator in a specific line of business.
Business To Business The transaction of goods or services between businesses (B2B).
Business To Consumer The transaction of goods or services between businesses and private individuals (B2C).
Buy, Build or Partner To Buy, Build or Partner for Learning. … The decision to buy, build or partner on learning usually goes in cycles. A leader may start building internal team resources and skills only to shift to a vendor strategy as business stakeholders become more demanding
Buyer The entity that decides to obtain the product.
Buyer Experience Understand and document the buyer’s journey for the key segments and buyers we have identified.
Buyer Persona A buyer persona is a semi-fictional representation of your ideal customer based on market research and real data about your existing customers. When creating your buyer persona(s), consider including customer demographics, behavior patterns, motivations, and goals. The more detailed you are, the better.
Captive Product (Pricing Tactic) An imbalanced price ratio between a product’s components which are sold separately.  The main system component is under-priced and the consumables or support services are overpriced.  The captive product pricing tactic can be quickly and easily accomplished via product system decoupling.
Category Maturity Life Cycle A model that describes the rise, duration, and decline of a category of product or service in terms of total revenue or number of users.
Client The entity that is the receiver of goods or services.
Cloud Computing Service and delivery model for the provisioning of IT components through the internet based on an architecture that enables a high level of scalability and reliability.
Company Board The entity of a company which is responsible for the definition and communication of strategy, vision and mission to the rest of the company. Also, it has the managerial supervision of the different departments, including product management.
Company Core Competency A company’s unique ability to deliver value, while differentiating itself from the competition.
Competitive Advantage A depiction that the company or its products are each doing something better than their competition in a way that could benefit the customer.

Competitive advantage = corporate quality + product quality

Competitive Landscape Competitive landscape is a business analysis which identifies direct or indirect competitors and at the same time, it permits the comprehension of their mission, vision, core values, niche market, strengths and weaknesses.
Conditional License Expiring ownership and usage rights to a product.  Can be renewable and non-renewable.
Constraint Business, project or design decisions taken in advance to ensure the solution fits business, managerial and contextual concerns. These decisions limit the solution space.
Consumer An individual or household that buys and uses goods and services created by industries.
Consumer Problem A marketplace situation in which consumer needs remain unsatisfied (B2C).  The solution is a whole product.
Consumer Products Products intended for use by household consumers for non-business purposes.  Consumer Products are used for personal gain.
Continuous Delivery Automated push of software into the production environment or delivery to customers.
Continuous Deployment Combination of continuous integration and continuous delivery to automatically deliver code changes to customers.
Continuous Integration Automated integration, build, and test of software in the development environment.
Conversion Rate Metric for the number of customers who have completed a transaction on a web site divided by the total number of website visitors.
Copyright A form of intellectual property right that gives the author of an original work exclusive rights for publishing, distributing and adapting the work.
Corporate Branding The process of building and maintaining a brand at the institutional level.
Corporate Marketing An outbound activity aimed at generating awareness and differentiation to the company.
Corporate Mission Statement A formal statement that a company makes about its reason for existing briefly describing the company’s general business direction and the value customers should expect to receive.
Corporate Quality A state in which the company delivers a relationship more rewarding than customers expected.
Corporate Strategy The basic long-term goals of an enterprise and the courses of action for carrying out these goals.
Corporate Vision Statement A message that summarizes the company’s purpose and intent and describes how, in the future, its products and activities shall affect the world.
Cost Per Lead Metric for the average amount of money invested to acquire a new lead.
Cost Structure The types and relative proportions of fixed and variable costs connected to a business model.
Costs[Customer] The aggregate expenses incurred by the customer from buying and using the product (essentially Total Cost of Ownership or TCO).
Credibility The quality of being believable or trustworthy.
Credit Terms Schedule for delayed payment(s).
Customer The entity (consumer or company) that takes (financial) responsibility for purchasing the product.  Often the realm to which the buyer and user belong.
Customers’ Expectations The hopes for deriving benefits from the product and establishing a rewarding relationship with the vendor.
Delivery Model A description of the mechanisms in which a product is made available to customers. Examples: Licensed product vs. Software-as-a-Service (SaaS).
Demand (Economics) Quantity of a product that will be bought in the market at various prices for a specified period.
Demand (Marketing) Wants for specific products coupled by an ability to pay for them.  The demand formula is Demand = want + buying power.
Demand-based Pricing (Pricing Tactic) Rapidly adjusting prices per customer according to market characteristics.
Derived Price Price that is determined based on attributed benefit.
DevOps Tight cooperation of Development and Operations with the objective to significantly increase the speed and quality of software deployment.
Disclaimer Denial of responsibility to events occurring during product ownership to discourage current or future legal action.
Discrimination (Pricing Tactic) Charging different market segments different prices for same product.  There are several levels of discrimination: First Level – price discrimination that is based on the ability to pay (charge per income).  Second level – price discrimination that is based on artificial obstacles (same price yet coupons, advance purchase, restricted use).  Third level – price discrimination that is based on external factors (gender, age, geography, or profession).
Distinctive Competencies A distinctive competency is a competency unique to a business organization, a competency superior in some aspect than the competencies of other organizations, which enables the production of a unique value proposition in the function of the business.
Distribution Strategy Distribution Strategy is a strategy or a plan to make a product or a service available to the target customers through its supply chain. … A company can decide whether it wants to serve the product and service through their own channels or partner with other companies to use their distribution channels to do the same.
Diversification (Pricing Tactic) Creating product variants with distributed price points.
Domain Expertise Knowledge in the technical and business aspects of the product, industry, market, and technology.
Durability (Product) How long the product maintains a level of performance without degradation.
Dynamic Pricing (Pricing Tactic) Rapidly adjusting prices per customer according to customer characteristics.
Embedded Software Software parts of software-intensive systems that are not marketed and priced as separate entities.
End-user License Agreement (EULA) Perimeters of usage and ownership rights granted to the customer.
Events Providing needed market and solution information to support marketing events such as marketing, conference, trade shows and webinars.
Expert User A user that has considerable experience with the product and utilizes many advanced features (power user).
Functional Expertise Knowledge in processes, tools, and techniques to plan/market products.
Functional Requirement A statement that identifies what a product or process must accomplish to produce required behavior and/or results.
Functional Support Plan Describes the activities, deliverables, budgets, dependencies, and schedules for a business function to members of a cross-functional product team, on behalf of a product.
Global Discount Universal, non-discriminatory, non-conditional deduction from the list price, for enticement purposes.
Goods Tangible products we can possess.  Segmented to durable and non-durable.
Graphic Arts The conception and copywriting of all collateral material.
High-tech Company A business entity that either develops technology that is incorporated in a product or is used in the assembly or manufacturing of a product, or manufactures a product that contains technology and that same product relies on that technology to perform its core function.
Impact A positive or negative consequence that will most likely occur when embarking on a product development and delivery project.
Industry A group of companies which produce and sell a particular product type.
Innovation Innovation can be simply defined as a “new idea, creative thoughts, new imaginations in form of device or method”. However, innovation is often also viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs, or existing market needs. The introduction of a product that is new or substantially improved.  Innovation is the process of converting and commercializing an invention into a product.
Innovation (Formula) Innovation = invention + utilization
Innovation Management The discipline of managing processes related to innovation. Innovation management allows the organization to respond to external or internal opportunities, and use its creative efforts to introduce new ideas, processes or products.
Intellectual Property Exclusive rights that are granted by law to the owner(s) of intangible assets that result from creations of the mind, such as inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, and images used in commerce.
Invention An idea which represents a revolutionary or evolutionary change.  Invention improves an existing solution or offers a conceptually new solution to a problem.
Kano Analysis A technique for understanding which product features will help drive customer satisfaction.
Key Performance Indicator (KPI) A specific numerical measure that represents the progress towards a strategic goal, objective, output, activity, or further input.
License A set of rights concerning a licensor’s intellectual property which a licensor grants to a licensee.
License Agreement A legal document that describes a license and the related financial conditions.
Licensing A method of providing rights to usage and ownership to a product, for a specified price and/or term.
Licensing Mix A combination of perpetual and term licenses relative to a particular product.
Longevity (Product) How long a product lasts.
Loss Leader A product that is priced below cost to attract consumers to buy other items.
Management By Objectives (MBO) A systematic approach for instilling flow and structure in one’s work by setting clear, achievable, measurable, and challenging goals.
Manufacturer The entity that produces the product or service.
Margins Direct financial gains by selling.
Market (a) The area of economic activity in which buyers and sellers of goods and services come together, and the forces of supply and demand affect prices.

(b) A geographic area of demand for commodities or services.

(c) A specified category of potential buyers.

Market Analysis Analysis of all aspects relevant for a market in its current state and over the strategic time frame including market structure, competitors, market shares, customer preferences and behavior.
Market Definition the action or business of promoting and selling products or services, including market research and advertising.
Market Intelligence An ongoing real-time market data collection and analysis process.  Market intelligence builds a body of knowledge.
Market Opportunity A lucrative, lasting, and sizable market problem.  Market opportunity = market problem + volume + duration + earning potential
Market Plan A description of the long-term goals and messages delivered to the target market relative to a particular company or product.
Market Problem A consumer, product, or technology problem in the target market.
Market Requirement An aggregate unit of information which represents with sufficient detail the functionality that is sought to address a specific facet of a particular market problem.
Market Requirements Document (MRD) A written representation of the overall functionality that users seek in order to address a particular market problem.
Market Segmentation A division of the overall market for a product into groups of common characteristics.
Market Strategy Decisions that define target markets, set marketing objectives, and outline how to build a corporate competitive advantage.
Market-driven A product delivery strategy that is based on producing and delivering products that the market needs.
Marketing An instructive business domain that serves to inform and educate target markets about the value and competitive advantage of a company and its products.
Marketing Communications The employment of a mix of media vehicles that support marketing objectives.
Marketing Growth Revenue growth is the increase (or decrease) in a company’s sales from one period to the next. Shown as a percentage, revenue growth illustrates the increases and decreases over time identifying trends in the business.
Marketing Mix A combination of product, price, place [distribution], and promotion activities that are applied to a particular target market.
Marketing Plan A marketing plan may be part of an overall business plan. Solid marketing strategy is the foundation of a well-written marketing plan. While a marketing plan contains a list of actions, without a sound strategic foundation, it is of little use to a business.
Marketing Program A short-term marketplace effort designed to obtain a specific marketing goal.
Marketing Strategy The decisions that determine how to achieve marketing’s goal in a particular target market, through the selection and application of marketing mixes.
Matrix Organization Organizational structure in which individuals report to more than one person
measurement
Mission Statement Definition of the present activities or purpose of an organization by saying what it does for whom and how.
MSRP Manufacturer’s Suggested Retail Price.  The price the manufacturer recommends that the seller offers the product for.
Need A state of felt deprivation (condition or motivation in which something is sought after to effect a change).
Net Promoter Score Method to measure customer loyalty by asking a single 0-10 scale question: “How likely is it that you would recommend $BRAND$ to a friend or colleague?”. Your promoter score is the percentage of customers who answer 9 or 10 subtracted by those who answer 0-6.
Niche Market A small overall market or small market segment.
Non-Functional Requirement A requirement that pertains to a quality concern that is not covered by functional requirements. Also referred to as -> Quality requirement.
Novice User A user that is new to the product (newbie).
Odd/Even Pricing Ending the price with certain numbers to influence buyers’ perceptions of the price or product.
One-time Fee (Licensing) A one-time fixed charge that enables constant use of the product.
Open Source Software Software that can be freely accessed, used, changed, and shared (in modified or unmodified form) by anyone. Open source software is made by one or more people, and distributed under licenses that comply with the Open Source Definition
Overall Market All customers who share a common need.
Patent A patent is an exclusive intellectual property right for an invention granted to the inventor for a defined timeframe by an authorized body of a sovereign state. The right is granted for the territory of that sovereign state. It is the right to exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, or selling the invention. The types of inventions covered by patent law can be different from state to state.
Payment The actual economic sacrifice a customer makes to acquire certain rights to a product.
Payment Forms Means of payment such as cash, credit card, check, or wire transfer.
Payment Terms Payment conditions such as currency type, letter of credit and purchase prerequisites.
Penetration (Pricing Tactic) Briefly charging a relatively low price upon product launch.
Perceived Value An unsubstantiated estimation of worth that the customer obtains or could potentially obtain from owning and using the product.

Perceived value = resultant value proposition + relative value proposition

Performance Management Continuous tracking and analysis of selected KPIs relevant for business success, plus timely action taking if needed
Perpetual License Non-expiring ownership and usage rights to a product.
Personal Competence The set of individual personality traits which enable individuals to manage themselves independently and capably.
Positioning Market positioning refers to the process of establishing the image or identity of a brand or product so that consumers perceive it in a certain way.
Price A specification of what a seller wants in exchange for granting right of ownership or use to a product.  The price formula is Price = costs + margins.
Price Discounts Deductions from the list price.
Price Elasticity of Demand Percentage change in quantity demanded that occurs in response to a percentage change in price.
Price Lining Pricing of products in a product family with corresponding price points.
Price Mix A price-related aggregate of information and conditions that the customer is presented with.
Price Modifiers Conditional deduction from the list price.
Price Psychology Dynamic human reasoning process which infers from a product’s price, price comparisons, and price changes, diverse messages about the product and company, and accordingly influences buying decisions.
Price Reductions Universal, non-discriminatory, and non-conditional official list price decreases.
Price Variables Price changes based on product characteristics.
Pricing Establishing a pricing model, schedule, guidelines and procedures.
Pricing Formula A calculative structure that allows the application of pricing changes to specific markets or competitive regions.
Pricing Objectives A description of what a company wants to achieve through pricing its products.
Pricing Scheme An outline of the overall pricing approach which encompasses the principles for pricing the specific product.
Pricing Strategy The primary method to pricing that relies on a particular pricing decision factor.
Pricing Tactics Pricing actions which are dependent on the particular life cycle stage of the product that is being priced.
Problem A difficulty.  A situation that requires change.
Product Any offering that satisfies needs.  Represents a collection of tangible and intangible assets.
Product Analysis Analysis of all business aspects relevant for a particular product in its current state and over the strategic time frame including KPIs like revenue, revenue distribution, footprints, and market shares.
Product Attribute A real characteristic or property of the product.
Product Branding The process of building and maintaining a brand at the product level.
Product Bundling An aggregate of products sold collectively at a price that is lower than the sum of their prices.  The price of the set of products is lower than the total of individual products.  Bundling is often accomplished in two forms: Direct bundling – customer must buy the entire package.  Indirect bundling – customer cannot buy product X without also buying Y, in fixed proportions.
Product Category A term synonymous with product line in the context of competing products.
Product Family A set of derived products that share the same technological foundation.  Members of a product family are called product variants.
Product Feature A product capability that satisfies a specific user/buyer need.
Product Group A set of products coupled or packaged together to form a new unified offering.  Members of a product group are called product members.
Product Life Cycle Management The management of the business and technical aspects of a software product with regard to its position in its life cycle.
Product Line A set of products that are technologically different yet provide similar functionality that serve the same target market needs.
Product Management An occupational domain that is based on general management techniques that are focused on product planning and product marketing activities.
Product Marketing Outbound activities aimed at generating product awareness, differentiation, and demand.
Product Mix An entire set of products offered by a company.  A collection of product units, product lines, product families, and product groups.
Product Planning The ongoing process of identifying and articulating market requirements that define a product’s feature set.
Product Portfolio A product portfolio is the collection of all the products or services offered by a company. Product portfolio analysis can provide nuanced views on stock type, company growth prospects, profit margin drivers, income contributions, market leadership and operational risk.
Product Problem An industry situation in which product requirements are unmet (B2B).  The solution is a product component.
Product Profitability difference between the revenues earned from, and the total costs associated with, a product over a specified period of time
Product Quality The market’s perception of the degree to which the product can consistently meet or exceed customers’ expectations.
Product Requirements Document (PRD) A high-level description of the solution, intended use, and the set of features it provides that address the market problem and satisfy needs.
Product Review An independent inspection, analysis, and evaluation of a product by a trusted industry thought leader (often a journalist).
Product Roadmap A product roadmap is a powerful tool to describe how a product is likely to grow, to align the stakeholders, and to acquire a budget for developing the product. But creating an effective roadmap is not easy, particularly in an agile context where changes occur frequently and unexpectedly.
Product Strategy (a) Combination of the strategic goals and measures for the product, i.e. aspects that need to be defined and managed for the strategic timeframe of the product. See corresponding column in ISPMA’s SPM Framework.

(b) Consistent documentation containing the following items and their evolution during the strategic timeframe:

• Product vision

• Product definition

• Target market, potential segments

• Delivery model

• Product positioning

• Sourcing

• Business plan

• Roadmap

Product Type A set of products that serve the same specific target market needs, which are technologically and functionally similar.
Product Unit An individual product that may be offered separately from any other product.
Productivity (Product) The product’s scope of useful features.
Public Relations The actions that promote and distribute information for a company.  Focused on encouraging media coverage of the company and its products, and building a virtual relationship between the company and its target audience.
Quality (Marketing) The market’s perception of the degree to which the company or product can consistently meet or exceed customers’ expectations.
Quality (Technological) The highest MTBF (mean time between failures) and lowest MTTR (mean time to repair) of a product.
Recurring Fee (Licensing) A fixed charge that enables limited time use of the product, but is renewed periodically at regular intervals.
Relative Value Proposition An implicit promise a product holds for customers to deliver a desired ratio of benefits and costs[customer].
Release (a) Product release: an instance of the product that is delivered to customers and maintained as part of product maintenance.

(b) Pre-release: a result of development activity that is testable, e.g. the result of a sprint in Scrum.

Release Definition The result of selecting the requirements to be implemented in the next release. Usually this result is documented including statements about the relationship between the selected requirements and strategic objectives.
Reliability (Product) How long before the product malfunctions.
Reliability (Service) The company’s record of promising and delivering.
Requirement (a) A condition or capability needed to solve a problem or achieve an objective. (b) A condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a system or system component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formally imposed document.

 

Requirements Management Planning, executing, monitoring, and controlling any or all of the work associated with requirements elicitation and collaboration, requirements analysis and design, and requirements life cycle management.
Requirements Prioritization The activity during which the most important requirements for the product are determined. As priorities change over time this activity is often targeted at the next release of the product.
Requirements Triage An activity for early and fast acceptance/rejection of requirements.
Resultant Value Proposition An implicit promise a product holds for customers to deliver a fixed combination of gains in time, cost, and status.
Revenue Retention Revenue refers to product sales, service sold, interest income and other cash inflows. … To achieve revenue growth, a small business needs to maintain and grow its customer base. Customer retention usually leads to revenue retention, which in turn can lead to revenue growth.
Risk A factor or event that may jeopardize the product/project from achieving the anticipated benefits or increase the cost and/or schedule of the product/project.
Risk Contingency Actions and incurring cost to be used in the future should the risk occur, thereby ceasing to be a risk and becoming a fact (after damage occurs).
Risk Mitigation Actions and incurring cost to proactively change exposure to a risk while it is still a risk (before damage occurs).
Sales The act of interacting with and persuading potential customers to buy the product.
Sales Alignment Marketing & sales alignment focuses on the agreement between the marketing and sales department on common goals, metrics and deliverables. It’s especially crucial in SaaS where the main job of the marketing department is to produce actionable marketing qualified leads (MQLs).
Sales tools The techniques and materials used by those who are involved in the promotion of goods and services. Most business that need to sell their goods or services to the public will make extensive use of various marketing tools, such as market research and advertising to help further their success.
Sales-driven A product delivery strategy that is based on producing and delivering products that a customer wants.
Scenario A succession of uses cases.
Seller The entity that sells the product or service.
Service (a) Useful labor that does not produce a tangible commodity (as in “professional services”).

(b) A provision for maintenance and repair (as in “software maintenance service”).

(c) The technical provision of a function through a software component that can be accessed by another software component, often over a network and executed on a remote server (as in “web services” or “Software-as-a-Service”).

Service Level Agreement (SLA) Agreement between two or more parties about the target values a service-giving party must achieve for the defined measures that are relevant for quality and cost of the service.
Site License Discount Discount provided to a large quantity purchase.  The number of product licenses acquired is estimated.
Skilled User A user that is comfortable using the product to perform job tasks (average user).
Social Competence The set of human interaction skills which relate directly to communicating and managing relationships with others in a professional environment’s social structure.
Soft Skills Non-technical, communicative, and personal abilities used in business.
Solution An answer which removes or controls the problem.
Stakeholder communication Stakeholder engagement is the process by which an organization involves people who may be affected by the decisions it makes or can influence the implementation of its decisions.
Strategic Aptitude The long-term planning and decision-making abilities that help achieve corporate objectives.
Subscription Fee (Licensing) A one-time fixed charge that enables limited time use of the product.
Superior Perceived Value A state where customers perceive the product gives a net value more positive than its alternatives.

Superior perceived value = competitive advantage + value

Supply Quantity of a product that will be offered to the market by suppliers at various prices for a specific period.
Tactical Activities Assignments, usually self-contained and specific that fulfill short-term business needs.
Tactics A set of actions taken to fulfill a strategy.
Target Market(s) The group or groups of customers selected by a firm to sell to.
TDM Buyer Technology Decision Maker buyer.  The person who has the authority to decide what technology will be used by the company to do work or to develop products.
Technical Specification (Tech. Spec.) A highly detailed description of the solution’s design, attributes, and standards.
Technology Problem Challenges in applied science.  The solution is scientific research.
Technology-driven A product delivery strategy that is based on producing and delivering products that we conceive.
Unique Selling Proposition (USP) A key statement that describes the distinct and compelling value of the product, which sets the product apart from other competing products.
Usability Ease of operation.
Usage Fee (Licensing) A charge per unit of measure that is tallied at regular intervals.
Use Case A specific way of using the product by performing some part of its functionality.
Value The worth derived by the customer from owning and using the product.

Value = benefits – costs[customer]

Voice Of The Customer (VOC) The process for eliciting needs from customers.  It embodies a market-driven approach that involves spending time with current and future customers to determine past, present, and future market problems that customers need to solve in order to meet their business goals and objectives.
Volume Price (Discount) Discount provided to a large quantity purchase.  The exact number of product licenses acquired is stated.
Want A request for specific objects that might satisfy the need.
Win/Loss Strategy A negotiation based on an attempt to divide up an amount of resources, resulting in a win-lose situation. When choosing this strategy, one takes on an adversarial or competitive view. The focus is on achieving immediate goals, with little or no regard for building future relationships